Friday, July 29, 2016

Notes on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), M Learnin, Face Book/whatsAap as educational devices

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)
Technological development reached to Indian school classrooms in 1960s. Now India widely uses the technological assistance for teaching and transaction. Technology is highly advanced from the good old OHP to the most advanced devices. Computer and allied components and internet become essential to the classroom teaching. The technology alone will not be worthy for a classroom. Effective uses of pedagogical principles through technological devices are the essential thing. We must redefine pedagogy to go on with the technology. This is the initial step of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge.
            Technological pedagogical content knowledge is essential to a social science teacher. Social science teacher can do active teaching with the techno-pedagogy. The following points can be traced out in this regard:
  • The technological knowledge enhances teachers to teach effectively
The technology alone can’t work effectively in a classroom. TPACK blends the technology, content and pedagogy for progressive utilization. TPACK consists of 7 different knowledge areas. They are:
  1.  Content Knowledge
  2. Pedagogical Knowledge
  3.  Technology Knowledge 
  4. Pedagogical Content Knowledge
  5.  Technological Content Knowledge
  6.  Technological Pedagogical Knowledge
  7.  Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
TPACK is the interaction of three primary forms of knowledge: Content, Pedagogy  and Technology. The relationship between these three items can be illustrated as follows: (hyp to Wikipedia)

Technology knowledge
Technology knowledge refers to an understanding of the way that technologies are used in a specific content domain.  For example, for social science teachers, it is an understanding of the range of technologies that historians or economists or exerts in geography use in social science and allied subjects.  Within the context of technology integration in schools, it appears to most often refer to digital technologies such as laptops, the Internet, and software applications.
Content Knowledge
Content knowledge includes knowledge of concepts, theories, and conceptual frameworks as well as knowledge about accepted ways of developing knowledge. For example It is the knowledge in any areas of social science.

Pedagogical Knowledge
Pedagogical knowledge is the knowledge in pedagogy as a science of instruction. It includes general knowledge about how students learn, teaching approaches, methods of assessment and knowledge of different theories of learning.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Pedagogical content knowledge is knowledge about how to combine pedagogy and content effectively. This is knowledge about how to make a subject understandable to learners. PCK includes knowledge of what makes a subject difficult or easy to learn, as well as knowledge of common misconceptions and likely preconceptions students bring with them to the classroom
Technological Content Knowledge
Technological content knowledge refers to knowledge about how technology may be used to provide new ways of teaching content.  For example, digital animation makes it possible for students to conceptualize how electrons are shared between atoms when chemical compounds are formed
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge
Technological pedagogical knowledge refers to the affordances and constraints of technology as an enabler of different teaching approaches. For example online collaboration tools may facilitate social learning for geographically separated learners.
 Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Technological pedagogical content knowledge refers to the knowledge and understanding of the interplay between CK, PK and TK when using technology for teaching and learning. It includes an understanding of the complexity of relationships between students, teachers, content, practices and technologies
M learning stands for Mobile learning. Mobile is a handy device that can be used for effective learning too. It means learning using portable devices that allow the student to learn in different environments and while on the move instead of being restricted to a classroom setting or tied to a desk. It is a portable technology.
It is an Electronic Learning as a subset of Distance Learning.
  • Mobile Learning is a Subset of E learning. It is very effective device to make use for e-learning. M learning have become extremely important words of the educational technological revolution. M learning is a whole boost of ideas and resources for the tech savvy teacher.

The Importance of mobile learning
M learning has the following importance:
         It is important to bring new technology into the classroom.
         Devices used are more lightweight than books and computers.
         Mobile learning can be used to diversify the types of learning activities that students partake.
         Mobile learning supports the learning process rather than being fundamental to its uses.
         Mobile learning can be a useful add-on tool for students with special needs. However, for SMS and MMS this might be dependent on the students’ specific disabilities or difficulties involved.
         Mobile learning can be used as a ‘hook’ to re-engage disaffected youth.
         It is very effective for making use social media as an educational support
Other Merits
         Relatively less expensive, as the cost of mobile devices are significantly less than Personal Computerss and laptops
         Opportunities for multimedia content delivery and creation options
         Continuous learning support for inidividual
         No training costs
         Potentially a more rewarding learning experience
         New opportunities for traditional educational institutions
         Provides Virtual learning environment
         virtual learning environment (VLE) is a Web-based policy for the digital aspects of courses of study within educational institutions. VLEs typically: allow participants to be organized into associates, groups and roles; present resources, activities and interactions within a course structure; provide for the different stages of assessment; report on participation; and have some level of integration with other institutional systems. 

Virtual learning: Student accessibility features

A virtual learning environment offers a learning system with many components, with added advantage of computer based learning and teaching space. One of the process to enhance the learning experience was the virtual resource room, which is student centered, works in a self paced format, and which encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning. In virtual mode, the materials are available in the form of computer aided learning program, lecture notes, special self-assessment module. Another mechanism for student to student interactions in a form of simple discussion forum is by using a novel link Cyber tutor. This allows the students with an email account to connect with course content and the staff with their doubts and related questions. The students are able to contact the staff without a face to face visit which saves the on campus time. The staff remains anonymous which allows for the several staff to act as a cyber tutor during the course. The student does not remain anonymous although their email address is cryptic enough to mask their identity. Students can discuss about the exams, lab reports, posters, lectures, and technical help with downloading materials. The evaluation of the use of Virtual resource room is done by surveys, focus groups and online feedback forms. The students have 24 hours of access to the learning material in a day which suits their varied life styles. They also find the learning materials to be very useful for many different reasons.

Virtual field trip: Virtual field trip simply means a field trip by using technological and internet resources.  It is the opportunity to explore and see places, things, and people not normally seen on a typical classroom day. During a classroom virtual field trip, students can explore places across the high seas, states across our country, and many nearby or far away people, places, and things. This is an opportunity to see and experience the world without ever leaving the classroom. Internet connection is the best need to have a virtual field trip. The virtual field trip has no cost effective to schools. It eliminates the costs of renting transportation, additional insurance coverage and the cost of chaperons.
Teachers can explore many virtual field trip options through websites of Discovery channel. A Malayalam channel by name SAFARI and the Sanjaram web site are also providing virtual fieldtrips. . There is a tremendous amount of information on the internet for planning virtual field trips.
Face book 
Face book is an online social networking service. The Facebook website was launched on February 4, 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg.
Uses of face book for a social science teacher
  1. Ask for information collection: The crowd on Facebook gives information on various fields.
2.      Conduct and attend remote lectures: Using Facebook, you can tune into remote lectures and presentations from around the world.
  1. Useful as Museums, social science lab, book bank  and more: Help your students follow along with local and international museums, art galleries, exhibits, and more for enriched learning on Facebook.
  2. Firsthand research: Students can connect with family members for genealogy assignments, discuss issues with local celebrities and more through Facebook.
5.         Follow politicians/nations/events and etc: If your class is studying the current election, use Facebook to follow politicians on the local, state, and national scale. You can even ask students to interact with the candidates, posting questions and getting feedback.
6.         Public polling: Students can research and poll friends and family members by simply asking questions on Facebook.
WhatsApp Messenger is a cross-platform, encrypted, instant messaging system for Smartphone. It uses the Internet to send text messages, documents, images, video, user location and audio messages to other users using mobile device with whats aap.
The underlying purpose of WhatsApp is to facilitate communication, and at its most basic level, education is nothing but communication. WhatsApp can provide a channel through which teachers can achieve faster and more seamless communication with their students. It can also increase the level of communication between students and create another venue for learning
Education Strategies for WhatsApp
whats aap is useful for:
1) Use the Group Chats feature to create learning and study groups
2) Create audio lessons that can be sent directly to students
3) Stay in contact with students outside the classroom
4) Send out problems or assignments to students even when they are not in class
5) Stay in contact with parents
6) Send videos to students
7) Send graphics such as pictures or charts directly to students
8) Send report cards directly to the parents’ phones
9) Facilitate real-time communication between students and teachers.
10) Facilitate real-time communication between teachers and parents.
11) Teachers can maintain communication with students.

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