Sunday, December 15, 2013

Definitions of Social Science or Social Studies. How to define Social Science?

The definitions of social studies are as follows:
·        John.U.Michaelis:-  He has tried to define the term social studies in two different ways as follows:
“The social studies defined as the study of man and his program is interaction with his social and physical environment in the past, present and emerging future”[1956]
“The social studies program includes those aspects of human relationship and social values, conditions and changes believed to be of greatest importance for the general education of the students”[1976]
·       J. F.Forrester:- states, “The social studies are, as the name suggests, studies of society and their chief aim is to help people to understand world in which they have to live and how it came to be, so that they may become responsible citizens. They aim at promoting critical thinking and readiness for social change, at creating disposition for acting on behalf of general welfare, at an appreciation of other cultures and the realization of interdependence of man and man and of nation and nation.”  

·       M.P.Moffatt:- defined[1950] “The social studies field is that area which aids youth through sound knowledge, information and experiences which are essential to the building of basic values, desirable habits, accepted attitudes and worthwhile skills basic to effective citizenship”

·       E.B .Wesley:-[1952] States, “The term social studies is used to designate  school subjects which deals with human relationships”
·       Arthur.C.Bining and David.H.Bining[1952] states, social studies are adapted from the social sciences in order to play a part –and a very important one-in achieving the purpose or subjective or education ….The material of the social studies provide the basis for making the world of today intelligible to the pupils for training them in certain skills and habits and for inculcating attitudes and ideals that will enable boys and girls to take their places as efficient and effective members of a democratic society”
·      Chester.W.Harris[1960]defined, “The social studies are those studies that provide understanding of man’s way of living of the basic needs of man, of the activities in which he engages to meet his needs and of the institutions he has developed”
·       Morris.R.Lewenstein[1963]defined, “The social studies are that part of curriculum of both the elementary and secondary schools which deals with man’s way of living with his fellow men in the past, the present and the future. They are the study of human behaviour  and human institutions, which aim to help students understand the culture and society in which they live in its physical settings.”
·       E.B.Wesley and S.P.Wronski[1958]defined, “The term social studies indicates materials whose content as well as aim are predominantly social. The social studies are the social sciences simplified for pedagogical purposes.”
·      Committee on the social studies of the National Education Associations[1916]USA defined, “The social studies are understood to be those whose subject matter relates directly to the organization and development of human society ,and to man as a member of social groups”
·      National Council For The social Studies USA[1992]
“Social studies is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence”

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