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Saturday, April 10, 2010

education in Indian society- note for BEd students of kerala

EDUCATION IN THE EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY

UNIT 1


INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION


• EDUCATION
*A life long process
*A psychological process
*A sociological process
*A bipolar process
*A tripolar process
*A multipolar process
*A dynamic process
*both an art and science

1.MEANING OF EDUCATION

A.Etymological or lexical meaning.

a.
->educare¬->to lead out
->educo->to lead out,go forward
->educare->to take care of ,to bring up,to bring forth,to nourish
->educatom->to teach,to train
b.
->vidhya->knowledge
->vidyarthi->one who seeks knowledge

c.
->siksha->to teach and learn
->teaching,instruction and perception

B.Narrow meaning.

->for 3 Rs.(reading,writing and arithmetic)
->to get degree or certificate
->comprises school,teachers,curriculam,methods etc...
->formal programme
->intentional not incidental
->synonymous with instruction
->teaching of ready-made material

C.Wider meaning

->consists of all those experiences which affects the individual from birth till death.
->organizing and reorganising experiences
->interaction of individual with his environment
->process of growth and development
->from womb to grave
->individual adopts himself with environment and adopts environment to his needs.

D.Analytical meaning

->not limited to knowledge imparted in schools
->development of child's innate power
->a dynamic process
->a bipolar,tripolar,multipolar process
->all round development
->develops the child and the society

2.DEFINITIONS

a.
"Education is the development of all the capacities in the individual which will
enable him to control his environment and fulfill his responsibilities"-----JOHN DEWAY

b.
"By education i mean an all round drawing out of the best in the child and man-
body,mind and spirit"----GANDHIJI

c.
"Education is the manifestation of perfection already existing in man"---SWAMI VIVEKANANDA

3.AIMS OF EDUCATION

1.knowledge aim

->knowledge for the sake of knowledge
->save an individual himself from error
->lead to discover the truth
->for intellectual development
->for moral development
->for spiritual development
->for good character
->social efficiency

2.cultural aim

->to culturise an individual
->culture is passed from generation to generation through education
->passive part of culture is actively interpreted by education
->to inculcate noble ideas,attitudes and patterns of behaviour
->educated person is cultured person
->he has broad human interests,high attitude on human rights,social sensitiveness,
high morality and personal efficiency
->the curriculam,teacher and the methods of education - preserve,transmit
and transform culture

3.character development aim

->to develop morality in an individual
->to raise man from brutal nature to human nature
->to cultivate the strength and purity of character
->character is the inner stability and strength
->to inculcate love,sympathy,co-operation,sacrifice and social service
->to develop noble thoughts.

4.vocational aim

->for self preservation
->to earn a living for bread and butter
->for economic independence
->for industrial advancement
->"a kind of insurance against unemployment"
->gives social status and social prestige
->meets the physical needs

5.harmonious development aim

->to strive for perfection of man's competencies in their completeness
->to make an individual a socialy acceptable person
->better social adjustment provides better socialisation
->to develop,organise,train and express man's powers
->to develop the ability for adjustment

6.citizenship aim

->to cultivate civic competence
->create national point of view in thinking
->make more responsible citizen
->to make aware of political and social processes
->to make the spirit of national service
->to cultivate cultural refinements of citizenship
->to make an individual more dynamic
->to make highly resourceful
->make more enterprizing

7. complete living aim

->formulated by HERBERT SPENCER
->for self preservation
->for securing vocation
->to become a worthy member of the home
->to contribute one's best to the society
->to utilise the leisure time profitabily
->to promote the physical and mental welfare
->to promote the personality in all it's aspect
->prepares to face all the evantualities of future life

8.physical development aim

->a sound mind lives in sound body
->good health is needed for good mental strength,attention and interest.
->for the development of physique
->physicaly strong citizens makes their country strong
->to make the individual fit,active and joyful
->insists free physical drills,sports,outdoor activities.

9.adjustment aim

->to create the capacity to adjust one self to the ever-changing environment
->those who adjust will survive and develop
->maladjustment leads to dacay and disappear
->social adjustment is essential for social development
->adjustment should be physical,mental and social

10.leisure utilisation aim

->for emotional and artistic faculties of children
->individual will be saved from many wasteful and harmful activities
->leisure nourishes man's thought and pleasure
->should taught music and other fine arts
->to develop aesthetic sense
->helps to select recreation and develop habits

11.self expression aim

->suppression of instincts is harmful and leads to mental disorders
->free expression to the basic tendencies gives joy to the child
->each child is unique
->he needs freedom
->the basic instincts of child is inborn
->free and natural development is essential

12.self-realisation aim

->to realise child's own ability
->to understand nature,humanbeing,god and their inter-relationship
->gives peace,happiness and bliss to the individual
->to purify,mould and sublimate the basic insincts
->to treat society as a means of self realisation
->to elevate the individual and the society to a higher level of glory
->for the formation of strong moral character.

13.spiritual development aim

->to realise true self of an individual
->to cultivate honesty,love,sympathy,empathy,peace,nonviolence etc....
->to realise the unique identity between individual soul and spirituality.

14.intellect and emotional development aim

->for the development of peace
->for national integration
->for the control and sublimation of basic instincts
->to improve emotionel unity
->for international understanding
->for the progressive contributions towards world humanity

15.individual aim

->for individual exellence of the learner
->"the progress of mankind is due to great individuals"
->for full and unimpeded development of all the innate abilities of the individual

16.social aim

->to make each individual socially efficient
->education should be a process of socialisation
->makes pupils to live successfully in society
->society is the book which pupils should study in schools
->school is a cross section of the society
->to participate actively in the school life
->a socially efficient individual will be a good citizen and has intelligence to
understand and appreciate the world
->he will dedicate himself to the ideals of his society.


4.FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION
->development of natural abilities
->character building
->development of personality
->preparation for adult life
->control and sublimation of basic instincts
->development of sense of community involvement
->creation of the sense of citizenship
->protection and increase of cultute and civilisation
->encouragement to social welfare
->national development
->proper use of leisure time
->increasing consciousness of other culture
->improving emotional unity
->developing international understanding
->giving awareness on humanity
->make awareness on exploitations
->ensure individual freedom
->develop the concept of 'live and let live'
->develop freedom
->cultivation of values
->development of peace
->development of national integration
->make a child free from ignorance,superstitions,poverty,disease,insecurity,
unemployment,prejudices and discrimination
->adaptation to environment
->modification of environment.

5.TYPES OF EDUCATION

A.Formal education

->it is a planned activity
->it is purposive
->it is organised and systamatic
->has predetermined and definite aim
->starts and ends at a particular stage
->imparted through formal lessons
->definite time
->definite syllabus
->the taught is aware of the process
->puts some mental strain on teacher and taught
->organised by some agency
->examination oriented system
->individual is loaded or stuffed with knowledge by the teacher
->it is rigid
->formalities to be followed in the age of admission,curriculum,syllabus,textbook,
timetable,methods of teaching,qualification of teachers,inspection,
supervision,examination etc........
->certificates,degrees or diplomas are awarded
->prevalent in schools,colleges and universities
->hierarchically structured
->chronologically graded
->legally institutionalised
->it is conceived in terms of traditional system
->planned for the modification of behaviour with a particular end in view
->regular and continuous programme.

B.Informal education

->received in an indirect manner
->all life experiences provides learning
->it is accidental
->'life is education and education is life'
->process from womb to tomb
->gets information from agencies like family,school,peer group,community
and friends
->experiences from the interactions with environment
->it is continuous and life long.
->it is unplanned
->it is non purposive
->un organised and un systamatic process
->no pre determined and definite aim
->no formal lessons
->no definite syllabus and period
->the taught is not aware of the process
->no mental strain as in formal education
->learns all time,from every event and from every experiences
->it is incidental process
->it has no anticipated goal and formal planning
->experiences are unstructured and indefinite
->environment has more effect upon the educant
->behavioural modification is spontaneous,without any conscious effort for it.

C.Non-formal education

->new concept after the report-'learning to be'
->it is formal as well as informal
->it is highly flexible and lenient
->it is carried on outside the established formal system
->it is relevent to the needs,requirements abilities and capacities of the individual
->not so rigid as formal education
->it is ment for the school drop-outs,the employed or working persons,those
living far away from the educational institutions,house wives,retird persons
and manyother looking for information,knowledge and training
->it is open ended
->it has flexible points of entry and exit.
->it has flexible curriculam
->it is a process of sharing and exploring together with full learner participation
->meeting the individuals felt needs
->it is self motivated
->it is participatory
->may or maynot insist examination and certification.
->eg.
->continuing education centres
->distance education
->correspondence courses
->open university, etc....

6.FACTORS INFLUENCING EDUCATION

A.Philosophical factors

explains=>
->why should a child be educated?
->for what to be educated?
->how to be educated?
->by whom to be educated?
influences=>
=>the aim of education
=>curriculum
=>text book
=>methods of teaching
=>discipline
=>teacher-pupil relation
=>aim of education is related to aim of life
->a totalitarian state will educate it's citizens for common good rather than for
individual good
->in democratic countries aim will be to make good citizens according to
democratic philosophy of life
=>the curriculum is constructed with the objectives of education
->objectives of education is guided by the aim of life
->aim of life has a heavy bearing of philosophy
=>the content and mode of presentation of the textbook is determined by
the values of life fixed by philosophy
=>in a totalitarian country the method of teaching will be teacher centered
->in a democratic setup it will be pupil centered
=>discipline of the educational institutions will reflect the philosophy of that age
=>a teacher who is well aware of the philosophy of life and it's impact on
education will succeed in his job.

B.Socio-cultural factors

->the culture of the society determines the pattern of education
->a society of spititual pattern of culture promotes the attainment of moral
and eternal values of life through education
->a society of meterialistic pattern emphasises the attainment of meterial values
->influences aim of education,curriculam,methods of teaching,discipline and textbook
->preservation,transmission and transaction of culture is the function of education
->acculturation and enculturation is effectively possible by education
->education and culture contribute to each other
->components of culture are the cells of education
->"culture is the lifeblood of the body of education"

C.Economic factors

->highly effecting factor
->a poor country can never introduce a highly expensive technological
device in the classroom
->education facilitates economic progress of the state
->economic condition of the state facilitates educational development
->educational achievement of an individual is limited by the financial
background of the family
->the quality of education is decided by the economic development of the society
->a poor country can not provide costly educational facilities to all it's citizens
->the' free education','common education','social justice','education for all'
and 'equality in educational opportunities' can be achieved with
economic efficiency only
->expenditure on education is an investment by the state
->industrial growth,agricultural growth etc.. help economic growth and
they influence educatioanal development
->the education needed by industrialised and agrarian communities will be different
->modern industry is highly technical and science based
->economic status influences the curriculum,method and also the infrastructures.

D.Political factors

->the political administration controls all educational affairs of the state.
=>a totalitarian state will mould the mind of children to an uncritical
acceptance of the will of the state
->education will be directed to secure mechanical discipline,
duty and unquestioned obedience.
->no academic freedom even in higher education
->no participation of local community in the education of their children
=>in communism education will be a national concern
->individual will have less freedom in the selection of courses
->academic freedom will be tolerated only with in the limits of communist doctrines
=>in democratic setup the society has major role in providing educational facilities
->education is considered as' the birthright of all' in democracy
->society has the responsibility to provide education according to
individual tastes,abilities and aptitudes
->universal education is a necessity in a democratic society
->education aims at improving vocational and practical efficiency
->inculcate respect for the national flag and national anthem
->exeptional children are given special instruction
->ample opportunities for phisical strength and mental discipline.

E.Historical factor

->education has developed along with human civilization
->education has a long past,a functioning present and a never ending future
->historical factors conect past with present to get energy for effective
functioning of education
->historical factors give a universal outlook to education
->indian education system is based on the british period education of
LORD MECAULEY
->the vedic,budhist,jainist and islamic education have influence in
present system of education.


***********************************************************************************************

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